Supported by

EIE/04/246/S07.38678

 

 

 

 

Benchmarking and Energy management Schemes in SMEs

 

Measure List Dairies

 

To download this list in Excel format click here

 

Process-related Improvement Opportunities

Fluid Milk Processing

Process Area

Operating. Low Cost/No Cost

Retrofit Higher Cost

1. Raw Milk Receiving and Tanker Wash (Raw Area)

Nozzle maintenance for CIP (Critical Infrastructure Protection) to ensure minimal hot CIP use

1. Infrared heating for receiving bay. 2. Exterior Tanker Wash with recycled water from elsewhere in plant. 3. CIP system improvements

2. Raw Milk Holding Silos (Raw Area)

Enhance silo insulation. Ensure sufficient mixing to minimize any temperature gradients.

 

3. Processing and Pasteurization System (Raw Area)

Nozzle or flow restrictions to reduce flushing water flow to minimum necessary.

CIP system improvements

4. Homogenization

 Nozzle or flow restrictions to reduce flushing water flow to minimum necessary.

 

5. Pasteurization using High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Plate Heat Exchanger

 Maintenance to ensure leakage from plate-pack prevented.

1. Heated cooling water recovery. 2. Improve efficiency by addition of plates.

6. Pasteurized Milk Storage (Pasteurized Area)

 

CIP system improvements

7. Filling. Product Conveying and Casing (Pasteurized Area).

 

CIP system improvements

8. Case Washing

 

 Recycled water from elsewhere in plant for initial case wash flush.

9. Product storage

 

Free cooling during winter months.

10. CIP operations

Volume, rather than time, based control on burst rises and CIP flows to reduce water quantities.

1. Optical interface unit to monitor milk/rinse water interface and water/CIP chemical interface.

2. Utilization of waste heat from identified utilities and services for heating/preheating of CIP washes and rinses as required.

3. Utilization of thermal storage for hot water requirements.

4. Recycle system on chemical washing solution, especially HTST washing chemicals, to reduce heating requirements.

11. Wash-up throughout plant.

1. Nozzle in hoses. Not left running.

2. Dry ingredient spills treated as solid wastes, rather than flushed. Hoses should not be used as brooms.

3. Heated water or heat exchange rather than steam injection for heating.

4. Reporting of leaks to ensure chronic leakage problems addressed.

Thermal storage of recovered hot water for wash-up purposes.

 

 

Cheese processing

Process Area

Operating. Low Cost/No Cost

Retrofit Higher Cost

1. Raw Milk Receiving and Tanker Wash (Raw Area)

Nozzle maintenance for CIP to ensure minimal hot CIP use

1. Infrared heating for receiving bay.

2. Exterior Tanker Wash with recycled water from elsewhere in plant.

3. CIP system improvements

2. Raw Milk Holding Silos (Raw Area)

Enhance silo insulation. Ensure sufficient mixing to minimize any temperature gradients.

 

3. Processing and Pasteurization System (Raw Area)

Nozzle or flow restrictions to reduce flushing water flow to minimum necessary.

 CIP system improvements

4. Pasteurization using High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Plate Heat Exchanger

Maintenance to ensure leakage from plate-pack prevented.

1. Heated cooling water recovery.

2. Improve efficiency by addition of plates.

5. Cheese Vat Processing Area (Pasteurized Area)

1. Operator attention to vat levels if manually filled to ensure no overfilling.

2. Operator attention to vat temperature if manually controlled, to ensure no excess cooking beyond necessary, during cooking process.

1. Automated filling control to eliminate over-filling.

2. Automated temperature controls to ensure no excess cooking.

3. Membrane system for pre-concentration of milk products.

4. CIP system improvements

6. Hoop washing

 

Recycling flush water to other uses, such as floors etc.

7. Aging/ Product storage

 

Free cooling during winter months.

8. Whey processing (for Whey powder – most common)

Ensure all whey collected to minimize water and hot water requirements for cleaning.

1. Use condenser to heat cooling water for other purposes, such as washup water.

2. Pre-concentration using membranes.

9. CIP operations

Volume, rather than time, based control on burst rises and CIP flows to reduce water quantities.

1. Optical interface unit to monitor milk/rinse water interface and water/CIP chemical interface.

2. Utilization of waste heat from identified utilities and services for heating/preheating of CIP washes and rinses as required.

3. Utilization of thermal storage for hot water requirements.

4. Recycle system on chemical washing solution, especially HTST washing chemicals, to reduce heating requirements.

10. Washup throughout plant

1. Nozzle in hoses. Not left running.

2. Dry ingredient spills treated as solid wastes, rather than flushed. Hoses should not be used as brooms.

3. Heated water or heat exchange rather than steam injection for heating.

4. Reporting of leaks to ensure chronic leakage problems addressed.

Thermal storage of recovered hot water for wash-up purposes.


 

Ice Cream and Frozen Products processing

 

Process Area

Operating. Low Cost/No Cost

Retrofit Higher Cost

1. Raw Milk Receiving and Tanker Wash (Raw Area)

Nozzle maintenance for CIP to ensure minimal hot CIP use

1. Infrared heating for receiving bay.

2. Exterior Tanker Wash with recycled water from elsewhere in plant.

3. CIP system improvements

2. Raw Milk and Cream Holding (Raw Area)

Enhance silo insulation. Ensure sufficient mixing to minimize any temperature gradients.

 

3. Ice Cream Milk Blending (Raw Area)

Dry ingredient spills treated as solid wastes, rather than flushed. Hoses should not be used as brooms.

 

4. Processing and Pasteurization System (Raw Area)

Nozzle or flow restrictions to reduce flushing water flow to minimum necessary.

CIP system improvements

5. Homogenization

Nozzle or flow restrictions to reduce flushing water flow to minimum necessary.

 

6. Pasteurization using High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Plate Heat Exchanger

Maintenance to ensure leakage from plate-pack prevented.

Heated cooling water recovery. Improve efficiency by addition of plates.

7. Pasteurized Ice Cream Mix Storage (Pasteurized Area)

 

CIP system improvements

8. Bulk Ice Cream Production/Filling

1. Minimize leakage and losses of product to reduce energy requirements for manufacture.

2. Collect residual ice cream mix for rework.

3. Minimizing product line distance from freezing unit to filling to reduce reheating.

 

9. Ice Cream /Novelty Molding

1. Ensure proper water flow controls for mould cleaning to ensure water use not excessive.

2. Ensure maintenance of brine temperature and warm-up to avoid excess sticking in moulds.

3. Ensure warm-up well-controlled to avoid excessive melting.

1. Utilization of waste heat or thermal storage for hot water requirements for mould release.

2. Recycling flush water to other uses.

10. Product Freezer

 

1. Refrigeration system refrigeration.

11. CIP operations

Volume, rather than time,

based control on burst rises and CIP flows to reduce water quantities.

1. Optical interface unit to monitor milk/rinse water interface and water/CIP chemical interface.

2. Utilization of waste heat from identified utilities and services for heating/preheating of CIP washes and rinses as required.

3. Utilization of thermal storage for hot water requirements.

4. Recycle system on chemical washing solution, especially HTST washing chemicals, to reduce heating requirements.

12. Wash-up throughout plant

1. Nozzle in hoses. Not left running.

2. Dry ingredient spills treated as solid wastes, rather than flushed. Hoses should not be used as brooms.

3. Heated water or heat exchange rather than steam injection for heating.

4. Reporting of leaks to ensure chronic leakage problems addressed.

Thermal storage of recovered hot water for wash-up purposes.

 

 

Cultured Products processing

 

Process Area

Operating. Low Cost/No Cost

Retrofit Higher Cost

1. Raw Milk Receiving and Tanker Wash (Raw Area)

Nozzle maintenance for CIP to ensure minimal hot CIP use

1. Infrared heating for receiving bay.

2. Exterior Tanker Wash with recycled water from elsewhere in plant.

3. CIP system improvements

2. Raw Milk Holding Silos (Raw Area)

Enhance silo insulation. Ensure sufficient mixing to minimize any temperature gradients.

 

3. Processing and Pasteurization System (Raw Area)

Nozzle or flow restrictions to reduce flushing water flow to minimum necessary.

CIP system improvements

4. Homogenization

Nozzle or flow restrictions to reduce flushing water flow to minimum necessary.

 

5. Pasteurization using High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Plate Heat Exchanger

Maintenance to ensure leakage from plate-pack prevented.

1. Heated cooling water recovery.

2. Improve efficiency by addition of plates.

6. Pasteurized Product Storage (Pasteurized Area)

 

CIP system improvements

7. Bulk Starter Culture and Main Culture Incubation/Holding

 

Active bacterial control in starter culture area to reduce potential contamination and losses. 2. CIP system improvements

8. Filling/Cartoning/Casing

Ensure use of nozzles on all flushing flows. Review type and positioning of spray nozzles.

CIP system improvements

9. Product storage

 

Free cooling during winter months.

10. CIP operations

Volume, rather than time, based control on burst rises and CIP flows to reduce water quantities.

1. Optical interface unit to monitor milk/rinse water interface and water/CIP chemical interface.

2. Utilization of waste heat from identified utilities and services for heating/preheating of CIP washes and rinses as required.

3. Utilization of thermal storage for hot water requirements.

4. Recycle system on chemical washing solution, especially HTST washing chemicals, to reduce heating requirements.

11. Wash-up throughout plant

1. Nozzle in hoses. Not left running.

2. Dry ingredient spills treated as solid wastes, rather than flushed. Hoses should not be used as brooms.

3. Heated water or heat exchange rather than steam injection for heating.

4. Reporting of leaks to ensure chronic leakage problems addressed.

Thermal storage of recovered hot water for washup purposes.

 

 

Butter processing

 

Process Area

Operating. Low Cost/No Cost

Retrofit Higher Cost

1. Raw Milk and Cream Receiving and Tanker Wash (Raw Area)

Nozzle maintenance for CIP to ensure minimal hot CIP use

1. Infrared heating for receiving bay.

2. Exterior Tanker Wash with recycled water from elsewhere in plant.

3. CIP system improvements

2. Can Washing (Raw Area)

Volume control rather than time control in can washing

Diversion of hot water from other areas for can wash, especially for initial rinsing.

3. Raw Milk Holding Silos (Raw Area)

Enhance silo insulation. Ensure sufficient mixing to minimize any temperature gradients.

 

4. Processing and Pasteurization System (Raw Area)

Nozzle or flow restrictions to reduce flushing water flow to minimum necessary.

CIP system improvements

5. Pasteurization using High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Plate Heat Exchanger

Maintenance to ensure leakage from plate-pack prevented.

1. Heated cooling water recovery. 2. Improve efficiency by addition of plates.

6. Pasteurized Skim Milk Storage (Pasteurized Area)

 

CIP system improvements

7. Churning/Butter Making

 

CIP system improvements

8. Product storage

 

Free cooling during winter months.

9. CIP operations

1. Volume, rather than time, based control on burst rises and CIP flows to reduce water quantities.

1. Optical interface unit to monitor milk/rinse water interface and water/CIP chemical interface.

2. Utilization of waste heat from identified utilities and services for heating/preheating of CIP washes and rinses as required.

 

 

3. Utilization of thermal storage for hot water requirements.

4. Recycle system on chemical washing solution, especially HTST washing chemicals, to reduce heating requirements.

10. Wash-up throughout plant

1. Nozzle in hoses. Not left running.

2. Dry ingredient spills treated as solid wastes, rather than flushed. Hoses should not be used as brooms.

3. Heated water or heat exchange rather than steam injection for heating.

4. Reporting of leaks to ensure chronic leakage problems addressed.

Thermal storage of recovered hot water for wash-up purposes.

 

 

Evaporated/ Dried Product Processing

 

Process Area

Operating. Low Cost/No Cost

Retrofit Higher Cost

1. Raw Milk Receiving and Tanker Wash (Raw Area)

Nozzle maintenance for CIP to ensure minimal hot CIP use

1. Infrared heating for receiving bay.

2. Exterior Tanker Wash with recycled water from elsewhere in plant.

3. CIP system improvements

2. Raw Milk Holding Silos (Raw Area)

Enhance silo insulation. Ensure sufficient mixing to minimize any temperature gradients.

 

3. Processing and Pasteurization System (Raw Area)

Nozzle or flow restrictions to reduce flushing water flow to minimum necessary.

CIP system improvements

4. Pasteurization using High Temperature Short Time (HTST) Plate Heat Exchanger

Maintenance to ensure leakage from plate-pack prevented.

1. Heated cooling water recovery.

2. Improve efficiency by addition of plates.

5. Pasteurized Milk Storage (Pasteurized Area)

 

CIP system improvements

6. Evaporation

 

Membrane RO/NF pre-concentration to reduce thermal load.

7. Post Evaporation Homogenization of Evaporated/Condensed Product

Nozzle or flow restrictions to reduce flushing water flow to minimum necessary – refer to manufacturers.

 

8. Filling/Product Conveying and Casing (Pasteurized Area)

 

1. Optical interface unit to monitor milk/wash flow rinse.

2. CIP System Improvements.

9. Drying and Agglomeration Spray and Fluid Bed

 

Improved higher efficiency drying technologies.

10. CIP operations

Volume, rather than time, based control on burst rises and CIP flows to reduce water quantities.

1. Optical interface unit to monitor milk/rinse water interface and water/CIP chemical interface.

2. Utilization of waste heat from identified utilities and services for heating/preheating of CIP washes and rinses as required.

3. Utilization of thermal storage for hot water requirements.

4. Recycle system on chemical washing solution, especially HTST washing chemicals, to reduce heating requirements.

11. Wash-up throughout plant

1. Nozzle in hoses. Not left running.

2. Dry ingredient spills treated as solid wastes, rather than flushed. Hoses should not be used as brooms.

3. Heated water or heat exchange rather than steam injection for heating.

4. Reporting of leaks to ensure chronic leakage problems addressed.

Thermal storage of recovered hot water for wash-up purposes.

 

 

New Technologies

 

Name of Technology

Process

Activity

1. Expert Computer Control Systems.

All (Especially Frozen Products).

1. Cooling

2. Processing

2a. Non-Thermal Pasteurization Methods: Micro filtration

Primarily Fluid Milk.

1. Pasteurization

2. Bacterial control

2b. Non-Thermal Pasteurization Methods: High Hydrostatic pressure

Primarily Fluid Milk and Cheese.

1. Pasteurization

2. Bacterial control

2c. Non-Thermal Pasteurization Methods: Electrical Field Effects

Primarily Fluid Milk.

1. Pasteurization

2. Bacterial control

3. Non-Thermal Bacterial Control: High and Low-Intensity UV for liquids.

1. High-Intensity fir Whey (Cheese)

2. Low-Intensity for Water (All)

1. Bacterial control

2. Bacterial control

4. Vacuum Superheated Steam Drying

Dryed Milk and Whey Products.

Drying

5. Pulsed Drying Systems

Dryed Milk and Whey Products.

Drying

6. Enzyme-based cleaners to improve CIP operations reduce energy, caustic and water use.

All

CIP

7. Just-In-Time Dairy Manufacturing Concept.

Primarily Fluid Milk.

Primarily Storage Related.

 

Note 1 The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. It does not represent the opinion of the Community. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.